The news that the FBI has received a threat against the
Orlando-area water supply has brought security issues back in focus for water
and wastewater facilities.
While law enforcement officials in Orange County (Fla.) have
said the water remains safe, they wanted to alert the public as a precaution.
However, like most of the threats, it was described as vague and
At the recent 2002 Washington Forum sponsored by the Water
& Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA), a panel of federal
and industry officials shed some light on security precautions and practices
that have been taking place.
Curt Baranowski from the EPA Water Protection Task Force
said that his agency is working under the guidelines of “the most
systems-safest-soonest.” The task force is assigned with providing
support to utilities to assess, minimize and respond to terrorist threats to
drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. After 9-11, there had been
eight security notices from the agency to utilities.
A total of $83 million was appropriated from the EPA for
security in the past year. Of this amount, $50 million was earmarked to big
utilities for assessment purposes. Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico
is developing the vulnerability assessment for water utilities. It should be
complete in June. The Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies has
developed an electronic assessment for wastewater facilities.
C. David Binning, P.E., director of planning and engineering
for the Fairfax (Va.) County Water Authority, said that the problem with
security at water/wastewater facilities is that each is so “site
specific.” Since 9-11, his authority has gone through an assessment. As a
result, gate guards and cameras have been installed, the use of chlorine has
been changed to sodium hypochlorite, the utility’s computers have been
tested for cyber security and law enforcement officials have been alerted to
locations and procedures of facilities.
“It's funny because we have gone out of our way to
beautify and make our pump stations and other facilities blend in with the
surroundings. Now we have had to go back and point out these places to law
enforcement for protection,” Binning said. These locations are now on a
Michael Marcotte, chief engineer of the District of Columbia
Water and Sewer Authority (WASA), also has gone through a vulnerability
assessment. “According to our assessment, even if terrorists blew up Blue
Plains (the world’s largest advanced wastewater plant), customers should
see no disruption in service.”
Because of their close proximity to the Capitol, WASA also
has changed from chlorine to hypochlorite for disinfection. Marcotte has $1.6
million budgeted for security over the next 10 years.
According to Binning, Fairfax has spent money on reliability
and redundancy for their systems. “We are still in the water business.
You have to work with law enforcement and other agencies for security.”