Birmingham Water Works Board (BWWB) of Birmingham, Ala., has consistently achieved the rating of the number-five water system in the United States...
Nanofiltration technology from The Dow Chemical Company is helping to
rehabilitate domestic water treatment at the Lake Mead National Recreation
Area, located in Nevada. A new product from FilmTec Corporation combines
high passage of desired minerals with high rejection of organic compounds,
including precursors to EPA regulated disinfection by-products.
By 2002, the Lake Mead Recreation Area will have a total of four new
water treatment facilities producing 916,000 gallons of fresh water per day.
Lake Mead is one of the country’s most popular recreation areas,
attracting more than 9 million visitors each year and is home to more than
5,000 permanent residents. To supply water to the residents and visitors,
the National Park Service maintains water treatment plants in order to make
purified drinking water from lake water.
Along with Las Vegas and Hoover Dam, Lake Mead is one of Nevada’s
premier tourist attractions. Providing an adequate infrastructure for the
millions who visit there is very important to the area. To do so, a phased
construction project began in 1998 to replace 20–30 year old,
non-compliant dual media gravity sand filter water systems. The new
facilities were designed to meet existing requirements and the scheduled
changes to the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the Safe Water Drinking Act.
The four plants relying on surface water from the lake will use a
combination of microfiltration and nanofiltration systems.
The microfiltration system at Overton Beach Marina uses the U.S. Filter
CMF technology, while the nanofiltration system uses FILMTEC® NF270-400
membrane elements. Raw water from Lake Mead has 570 parts per million of
total dissolved solids. The treatment goals are to achieve a high rejection
of the organic carbon to meet EPA standards and a low rejection of calcium
and alkalinity to maintain corrosion control and taste. Early results were
Three weeks after start-up, the system produced up to 100,000 gallons of
water per day at a nanofiltration trans-membrane pressure of just 50 psi.
The FILMTEC NF270-400 membrane elements provided increased mineral passage,
eliminated the need for blending, and provided 94 percent rejection of total
organic carbon (TOC). In addition to these benefits, the membrane elements
were shown to be energy efficient providing high productivity at low
Nanofiltration is a liquid separation membrane technology that is
positioned between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. While reverse
osmosis can remove the smallest solute molecules in the range of 0.0001
micron in diameter and smaller, nanofiltration removes particles down to the
0.001 micron range. Nanofiltration is a low pressure membrane compared to
reverse osmosis and is used in applications where partial passage of
minerals is desired. The level of dissolved solids to be removed is less
than what is typically encountered in brackish water or seawater. As such,
nanofiltration is especially well suited for treatment of well water or
water from surface sources such as rivers and lakes.
Nevertheless, nanofiltration is capable of partially removing hardness
elements such as calcium or magnesium. (Like reverse osmosis, nanofiltration
also is capable or removing bacteria, viruses and color, as well as organic
compounds that may lead to the generation of chlorinated hydrocarbons.)
Nanofiltration also is used to remove pesticides and other organic
contaminants from surface and ground water to help ensure the safety of
public drinking water supplies. Sometimes referred to as membrane softening,
nanofiltration is an alternative to lime softening or sodium chloride
zeolite softening technologies. Since nanofiltration operates at lower
pressures than does reverse osmosis, energy costs are lower than comparable
reverse osmosis treatment systems.
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