Phosphorus is the 11th-most-abundant element in the earth’s crust and is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. Phosphorus exists in nature primarily as phosphates (PO4). Inorganic species include ortho, pyro, hypo and meta phosphates, which exist in minerals and are primarily used in fertilizer. Organic phosphates produced by biological processes are present in ATP, DNA, RNA and the phospholipids in every cell membrane. Phosphates primarily enter the water system through agricultural runoff and effluent from wastewater treatment plants.
An international oil and gas company that operates a liquid natural gas (LNG) terminal on Italy’s Adriatic Sea coast recently encountered a problem with its wastewater treatment process. Before the water is released back into the Adriatic Sea after its use at the terminal’s operations, it must be treated to ensure it is safe and will not harm or pollute the environment.
Coastal LNG terminals and processing facilities require a significant amount of water for use in their operations. The water is typically drawn from rivers or the sea and is used as:
Sour gas and sour water are terms used to describe gas and water containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Sour water and sour gas applications abound at oil refineries and natural gas plants. The “sweetening” of gas and water refers to the processes used to remove hydrogen sulfide and organosulfide compounds. Hydrodesulfurization is a method of sulfur removal employed at refineries and natural gas plants.
The measurement of electrolytic conductivity is used to determine the amount of dissolved ionized material in a solution. It is most commonly determined by measuring the electrical conductivity between two metallic electrodes placed into the solution. Inductive conductivity is a non-contacting conductivity measurement made between two toroidal magnetic coils located inside a sensor that are inductively coupled through the solution’s conductivity.
The TC80 Total Chlorine Analyzer is designed for use in drinking water, industrial cooling and rinse water, and other samples of freshwater that use chlorine in the range of 0 to 20 ppm as a disinfectant. Simply supply power, plumb the sample and drain lines, and the TC80 is ready to use.
The rugged Triton DO80 sensor was developed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment applications. Unlike amperometric sensors, the Triton DO80 has no membranes to replace, no electrolytes to refill and no anode/cathode assemblies to service or replace.
Conventional amperometric chlorine sensors are unstable when measuring near-zero amounts of chlorine, which can lead to inaccurate and inconsistent readings. The DC80 de-chlorination analyzer utilizes a “zero-shift” methodology to provide accurate measurement and to protect total chlorine sensors from damage, which naturally occurs when the water samples measured contains near-zero or zero levels of chlorine.
Municipal and industrial process engineers alike will find the new plug-n-play FC80 panel mount free chlorine analyzer from Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) simplifies water monitoring and treatment processes while installing easily and requiring less maintenance to lower cost-of-ownership.
The Model DO90 trace dissolved oxygen (DO2) analyzer offers reliable and effective monitoring of boiler feed water. Oxygen should only be present in trace quantities in boiler feed water, as excessive concentrations of oxygen can result in corrosion damage to the components of the steam cycle. Boiler feed water is thermally and chemically degassed to achieve oxygen-free water, a state that must be maintained throughout the steam cycle.
The Triton TR6 sensor is designed for the continuous measurement of suspended solids in various ranges—from 0 to 1,000 mg/L to 0 to 5,000 mg/L. The sensor emits a beam of 850-nanometer near-infrared light into the sample where it is scattered by particles suspended in the water. The amount of back-scattered light returning to the sensor is measured and correlated to the amount of suspended solids in the sample.
The Triton DO80 sensor was developed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment applications. Unlike amperometric sensors, the Triton DO80 has no membranes to replace, no electrolytes to refill and no anode/cathode assemblies to service or replace.
The Hydra nitrate analyzer system monitors the nitrification process in aeration basins at wastewater treatment plants, a process during which toxic ammonium ions are oxidized into much less toxic nitrate ions using an aerobic activated sludge process. De-nitriﬁcation reduces the nitrate ion (NO3-) to nitrogen gas (N2) by an anoxic reaction in the same treatment basin or in a separate anaerobic digester. The NO3-N measurement helps optimize the methanol being fed to the digester, minimizing cost.
Filter backwashing is a critical part of the drinking water production process. During backwashing, water flow is reversed and increased in order to flush out debris and particles. Filter backwashing has two main objectives: it extends the life of the filter, and it cleans the filter to preserve water quality.
Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) now offers the Model T80 Universal Transmitter, a versatile, easy-to-use solution for virtually all liquid analytical measurements.
Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) now offers the S80 Intelligent Fluoride Specific Ion Sensor, which combines with the company’s AC10 Self-Cleaning Module and the Model T80 Universal Transmitter to form a complete Fluoride analyzer system.
ECD’s Model S80 Intelligent Sensors are available in two Universal Sensor Designs: Insertion/Submersion and Valve Retractable with flared end to prevent blowout.
Featuring a state-of-the-art fluorescence quenching (FQ) sensing element, the second-generation Triton DO80 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor from Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) delivers accurate DO measurement in a wide range of municipal and industrial water treatment applications and features a long-life membrane cap for years of service.
Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) has introduced the CDA-22 Chlorine Dioxide Analyzer, which is designed to support raw water treatment filtration systems. Featuring a panel-mounted plumb-and-play design and automatic flow control, the CDA-22 is a complete chlorine dioxide (ClO2) measurement system.
Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) has introduced the Triton TR8 Turbidity Analyzer (TA), which is designed to monitor turbidity in filter backwashing systems to optimize plant efficiency.