Patoka Lake Regional Water & Sewer District (PLRWSD) serves 11 counties in southern Indiana with a population of around 130,000. Water is distributed though approximately 850 miles of pipe ranging in size from sizes 3 in. to 30 in. and includes numerous elevated towers and/or tanks in each district metered area (DMA). An intake structure located at Patoka Lake, a little over one mile from the water treatment plants, feeds the facilities. Sean Kluesner is operations manager and Jerry Allstot is the plant superintendent for the district.
The Colombian State of Antioquia creates much of its clean power from hydroelectric plants along the Guadalupe River. In the case of the Guadalupe IV hydroelectric plant, the risk of flooding required that a suitable solution be provided to ensure that the ejector pumps would work regardless of power or pressure differentials.
The Hutchinson, Kan., water plant gets its water from 20 wells. The water is pumped out of the wells and into a reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment center to purify and ensure safe drinking water. At that point, a portion of the water is taken off from the main line, run through the RO system and then mixed back with the well water. This is used to lower the total dissolved solids in the water. The plant can handle 10 million gallons per day (mgd) and provides water to 41,000 residents and businesses.
The North South Interconnection System Project (NSISP) is one of South Australian (SA) Water Corp.’s biggest infrastructure projects in the Adelaide metropolitan area. SA Water built the $403 million project to connect the north and south drinking water distribution systems and to increase access to a desalination plant. The project included the construction of 32 km of pipeline through metropolitan main roads and suburban inner streets.
The Bull Run watershed has continuously provided water to the Portland, Ore., metropolitan area since 1895. It also plays an important role in supporting the larger aquatic ecosystem of the Sandy and Lower Columbia rivers, where some fish species have been in significant decline.
Johor is Malaysia’s third-largest state and one of the most developed regions of the country. SAJ Holdings is a water utility company based in the state capital of Johor Bahru. It is responsible for Johor’s water supply system, including water treatment and potable water distribution. To service a population of more than 2.7 million, the company must ensure that the state’s water infrastructure is reliable and effective.
But, like with most water systems, problems arise. Problems such as overflowing water reservoirs.
The Millcreek Township Water Authority (MTWA) of Millcreek Township, Pa.—near Erie, Pa.—was created in 1974 to provide water to the rapidly growing Millcreek Township customer base. The MTWA purchased several small water systems, which have been upgraded and grown to 112 miles of pipeline ranging in size from 2 to 24 in., with ten pump stations to maintain water pressure, five water towers for storing a total of 5 million gal and one groundwater well. The water distribution system has elevation changes of about 400 ft and an average daily flow of approximately 2.5 mgd.
Malang lies 900 km east of Jakarta on Java in Indonesia. In 2011, the city was supplying water to roughly 120,000 service connections—roughly 600,000 people, which accounted for about 70% of the city’s population. Approximately 30% of the supply to the customers is gravity-fed directly from springs to the users, while the other 70% of the supply is pumped to eight storage reservoirs with a total maximum storage capacity of 18,000 cu m.
The reservoir filling station at Pittsfield Township, Mich., provides water to about 39,000 people, with needs that vary from industrial and commercial to urban and rural. Their average daily water usage is 3.5 mgd, which increases up to 7.0 mgd during summer days.
Salalah is a coastal city in Oman, about 1,500 km south of Dubai. Although the beautiful city has an average population of 200,000, tourists flock there for its temperate summer climate. The city receives its water from a desalination plant that has the capacity to process 30 million gpd. This water then goes through a 105 km transmission line with DN 1200, DN 700 and DN 600 DI pipes into respective reservoirs that supply water to the residents as needed.
Addressing the issue
Yarra Valley Water (YVW) is the largest of Melbourne’s three water corporations, providing water supply and sewerage services to more than 1.7 million people and more than 50,000 businesses in the northern and eastern suburbs of Melbourne. The district covers approximately 4,000 sq km, from as far north as Wallan and extending to Warburton in the east. It maintains more than 9,000 km of water mains and nearly 9,000 km of sewer mains.
The District of Central Saanich is a member municipality of the Capital Regional District (CRD) of Greater Victoria in British Columbia, Canada. The district has a medium-size, widely dispersed sewerage collection system that sends its sewage to a regional wastewater treatment plant. There is minimal storage capacity within the municipal collection system; multiple lift stations pump sewage through force mains into the regional trunk sewer system and from there to treatment.
Bangkok’s Metropolitan Water Authority (MWA) services 8 million people and is focusing on improving pressure management in an effort to reduce serious water losses. With water loss up to 30%, the water authority installed pressure-reducing valves throughout Bangkok and its suburbs. The valves accurately controlled nighttime pressures, preventing leaks and breaks. However, in some areas, high demand during the day caused pressure to drop to 10 psi (0.68 bar) or less.
Without the right solution, aging water pipes, overflowing tanks and noisy valves can become chronic issues for a water retailer’s supply infrastructure. Imagine the maintenance demands and repair costs, not to mention the risk of an unpredictable water supply.
The City of Modesto, Calif., is located 90 miles (145 km) east of San Francisco. Modesto’s 200,000 residents use 55 million gal of potable water per day. In 2006, the city decided to upgrade three of its eight water storage tanks. The plan was to modernize the booster pumps and automatic valve controls at these locations. The project would provide an immediate improvement in water pressure to customers in South Modesto.
The butterfly effect
In Butler County, Ohio, Singer Valve solved three issues in one application. Through its representative, Kerr Marketing Agency, Singer Valve was introduced to the community, which purchases wholesale water from the cities of Hamilton, Ohio, and Cincinnati. Butler County provides drinking water to approximately 100,000 people.
Donnacona, Quebec, Canada, is an industrial town just west of Quebec City. The town’s water treatment plant was built in 1969 and has since undergone three major retrofits: new high-pressure pumps and an electrical upgrade in 1995; a filter bottoms change in 2000; and a river water intake upgrade in 2005. The plant includes conventional treatment for coagulation, sedimentation (pulsator), filtration (sand filters) and disinfection (Cl2). The raw water pumping station is 1.5 km away from the plant and includes two single-speed pumps.