The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an updated version of its Sampling Guidance for Unknown ...
The Water Technology division of the Siemens Group Industrial Solutions and Services (I) announced that its Astrasand Continuous Backwash Filter and Gravisand Traveling Bridge Filter have both received Title 22 acceptance from the State of California's Department of Health Services Recycled Water Committee. The two filters are now accepted as filtration technologies for use in complying with California’s stringent water recycling criteria.
Both the Astrasand and Gravisand technologies have been applied in numerous reuse applications in several states prior to having the Title 22 certification issued. “Having the Title 22 certification of California will expand our market potential in the western U.S.,” said Julian Pauwels, filtration product line manager, “especially in California, where maximizing the practical and beneficial reuse of water is an increasing priority. As the cost of potable water supplies rises, the Gravisand and Astrasand filters make recycled water a cost-efficient water supply alternative.”
The Gravisand or Astrasand filters can be used to complete the final stage of the three-stage recycled water treatment process: primary treatment, secondary treatment and tertiary treatment. Gravisand technology incorporates the principles and advantages of conventional traveling bridge designs, but uses improved methods of accomplishing and maintaining filtration and regeneration. The Astrasand filter is a continuous backwash filter, developed for the physical-chemical and/or biological treatment of different types of water, such as process, waste, surface, cooling and groundwater.
Recycled water can be used for urban landscaping, agriculture, impoundments such as decorative lakes and fish hatcheries, and a wide variety of industrial applications.
California has been a world leader in water recycling, and has a state-legislated goal that one-million-acre-ft per year of water be recycled by 2010. In 1969, the Department of Health Services and the state's nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards set stringent quality and usage standards for the recycled water, known as the California Code of Regulations Title 22. Since then, many other states have followed suit and adopted the Title 22 water recycling criteria, or set their own water quality standards. One example is Florida's Chapter 62-600, F.A.C. of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's Water Reuse Program.