Amid conflicting statements regarding the safety of bottled
water, consumers are left to sift through vast amounts of information trying to
determine what's fact, what's fiction and who's looking out for their best
interest. Bottled water manufacturers and respective trade organizations such
as the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) and the European Bottled
Water Association (EBWA) release information attesting to the safety and purity
of bottled water. Activist groups such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and
Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) continuously perform studies and
release information to discredit that information released by the bottled water
While both sides of the bottled/tap battle continue trying
to inform and ultimately win the consumer over, a few facts cannot be overlooked.
Regardless of how a consumer obtains drinking water, both bottled and tap must
draw from the same available global freshwater sources. Despite the information
with which consumers are presented, ultimately the decision is theirs. When
purchasing bottled water, knowing what you are getting requires some research
Determine What is Best
Understanding the bottled water industry must begin with a
basic knowledge of the several types of bottled water available. The U.S. Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) has established standards to identify the source
and treatment method (see "Types of Water" sidebar) for all bottled
water produced and/or sold in the United States regardless of where it was
Where the Confusion Begins
If determining the types of bottled water is easy, then
where does the confusion begin? Perhaps it is the simplicity of water that
causes the consumer to question the quality of tap and bottled water.
The bottled water industry has experienced tremendous growth?becoming
a $22 billion-a-year business. Some market analysts even predict that by 2004
bottled water consumption in the United States will surpass beer, milk and
coffee to become the second most consumed beverage behind soft drinks. Public confidence
in tap water has been somewhat eroded due to images of polluted water sources,
a lack of environmental protection and weak enforcement of regulations coupled
with issues of health and aestethics. Therefore, some consumers have sought out
alternative sources of drinking water by turning to bottled water. The FDA
Standards of Identity requires bottled water to be accurately labeled, creating
national standardized bottled water labels.
Public concern over the quality of bottled water may have
begun when consumers realized that it's not necessarily cleaner or safer than
most tap water. Bottled water has incidence for contamination not unlike tap
water. Municipal water is even the source used for 25 percent of all the
bottled water sold in the United States labeled and sold as
"purified" or "drinking water." If the water is not
significantly altered, the bottled water must be labeled as coming from a
municipal source. Bottled water labels also may be misleading, despite FDA
regulation to standardize. The pristine images that allude to mountain and snow
on one bottled water could cause a consumer to subconsciously think that the
bottled water is from a natural mountain spring when in fact it is processed at
a municipal water source.
Is the Grass Always Greener?
Since both tap and bottled water have the perceived
potential for contamination, consumer education of the regulations governing
the bottled water industry becomes important.
Bottled water in the United States is regulated on three
levels: federal, state and trade association. Together these regulations offer
consumers assurance that the bottled water they purchase is stringently
regulated, tested and of the highest quality. In fact, in the United States,
bottled water is one of the most highly regulated food products.
FDA regulation of bottled water requires every product to be
fully tested annually for chemical, physical and radiological contaminants.
Therefore, the FDA establishes quality standards for the bottled water product
and good manufacturing practices for the bottler. The National Sanitary
Foundation (NSF) Bottled Water Certification Program verifies that bottling
facilities and their products meet the FDA regulatory requirements. The NSF
testing program provides for annual unannounced plant inspections and includes
extensive annual product testing for more than 160 chemicals and radiological
and microbiological contaminants.
State regulatory requirements of the bottled water industry
include inspecting, sampling, analyzing and approving sources of water and
laboratory certification. Under the Federal Good Manufacturing Practices
(GMPs), only approved sources may be used to supply a bottling plant. State
regulations complement federal regulations by certifying testing laboratories.
In addition, the state performs unannounced plant inspections and some states
even perform annual inspections. Membership into IBWA is contingent on a
bottler's agreement to annual, unannounced plant inspection administered by an
independent, internationally recognized third-party inspection organization.
Inspection typically includes auditing quality and testing records, reviewing
all plant areas from source to finished product and checking compliance with
FDA, GMPs and any state regulations.
However, a four-year study conducted by the NRDC revealed
that bottled water regulations are inadequate to assure consumers of purity or
safety despite federal and state bottled water safety programs. At the national
level, water that is packaged and sold in the same state is exempt from FDA
regulation. In addition, roughly one out of five states do not regulate water
The NRDC further claims that when bottled water is covered
by FDA regulation, it is subject to different testing and purity standards than
tap water (i.e., bottled water is required to be tested less frequently than
tap water for bacteria and chemical contaminants). Where E.Coli or fecal
coliform contamination cannot be detected in tap water, small amounts are
allowed in bottled water under current regulation. Furthermore, tap water
regulation requires disinfection and testing for parasites such as
Cryptosporidium or Giardia; bottled water does not have the same requirements.
Serving the Consumer
When it comes to choosing a drinking water source, bottled
water or tap water, the decision is highly dependent on consumer culture,
consisting of both their attitude and behavior. While marketing surveys are
used to track consumer behavior, attitudes--the psychological reason why
consumers do what they do--are very difficult to grasp.
Modern bottled water consumers are immersed in a market that has experienced drastic
advancements over the past 30 years. What once started as a business delivering
water coolers and five-gallon bottles to the home and office, is now a
significant retail business, offering a wide variety of single-serving portable
water bottles. But for those consumers who don't care to spend anywhere from
240 to 10,000 times more per gallon (verses tap water) on bottled water, a
dealer can offer point-of-use and point-of-entry in-home water treatment
options for the disinfection, filtration and purification of tap water.
Unlike other utilities, water is the only one that has the
power to impact public health since a person can live a month without food but
only about one week without water. In the United States, there currently are
3,000 natural gas utilities, 3,000 electric utilities and 54,000 community
drinking water systems. Whether these domestic water systems experience
contamination or attacks that affect the drinking water supply, bottled water
can be a safe alternative in
emergency situations. Statistically, consumers continue to drink bottled water
for reassurance long after tap water emergencies.
Drinking water shortages worldwide and drought conditions
throughout much of the United States threaten our natural ecosystem and
consequently affect source water supplies. As it is, only 1 percent of the
world's fresh water is readily available for human consumption. So, regardless
of whether consumers choose the bottle or tap, the continued availability of
drinking water supplies is dependent on the protection and improvement of
A decision by definition is a determination arrived at after
consideration, and a motive is something that causes a person to act. Adequate
information exists for a consumer to consider and then determine their choice
of drinking water. Perhaps what bottled water manufacturers and activist groups
fighting for the preservation of tap water usage overlook is that the real
power lies with the consumer. Only he can make the choice. It is up to the
water treatment/bottled water dealer to educate him regarding his bottled water
and POU/POE treatment options.