This paper provides an overview of the condition of the nation's water infrastructure and the need to replace piping systems with materials that do not leak. This report discusses conservation at the root of the problem, detailing percentages of water lost in piping systems due to main line breaks, corrosion and joint leakage. Also discussed is cost analysis of lost revenue due to leakage, leak detection, leak repair and future estimated repair expenditures. The use of high-density polyethylene pipe (HDPE) over the past 35 years in the gas industry is a model of study for a leak-free distribution system. It has also pointed the way to a safes, reliable, affordable and long-lasting water distribution system. Topics covered include: installation, environmental impact relating to infiltration and seepage, water hammer and the role of heat-fused joints as the solution for a monolithic structure.