Water is required in almost every industrial sector for the processing and manufacturing of products. In 2015, it is estimated that industrial raw water consumption within the U.S. will exceed 2 million mega-liters (500 billion gal) per day. Sources of high-quality raw water for commercial plants are becoming progressively scarce. The availability of water from rivers and lakes is not only diminishing, but what is available is increasingly regulated by federal, state and local mandates. This has made industrial water recycling a high-profile concern.
The Northern Village of Île-à-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan, Canada, operates a surface water treatment plant for its drinking water supply. The water source is Lac Île-à-la-Crosse in northern Saskatchewan, with its corresponding cold water temperatures.
The number of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) shale oil and gas wells in the U.S. and worldwide continues to increase. Within the Bakken Shale formation in North Dakota and Montana alone, upwards of 15,000 wellheads are in operation, with another 20,000 wells planned. The U.S. has vast reserves of oil and natural gas that are commercially reachable due to advances in horizontal drilling and fracking technologies, which have enabled access to oil and gas in shale formations, such as the Bakken.