The Northern Village of Île-à-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan, Canada, operates a surface water treatment plant for its drinking water supply. The water source is Lac Île-à-la-Crosse in northern Saskatchewan, with its corresponding cold water temperatures.
The number of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) shale oil and gas wells in the U.S. and worldwide continues to increase. Within the Bakken Shale formation in North Dakota and Montana alone, upwards of 15,000 wellheads are in operation, with another 20,000 wells planned. The U.S. has vast reserves of oil and natural gas that are commercially reachable due to advances in horizontal drilling and fracking technologies, which have enabled access to oil and gas in shale formations, such as the Bakken.